“Checkmate” the Opponent’s king in Chess game: Time controls management using Yogic Relaxation Techniques

 

Sadhna Dadhore, G. Paran Gowda

University of Patanjali, Haridwar, Uttarakhand. University of Patanjali, Haridwar, Uttarakhand.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sadhnadadhore112@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The major objective of the study is to compare the standard chess time controls with yoga time controls. Yoga is skill in action while the time control in the chess game is how much time a player gets to make their own pawn moves. In this study 630 subjects have been selected using randomised control trial method. They are divided into two groups; pre and post. Pre group is without yoga and post group is with yoga education and the results were determined using a t test for paired data. The results show that the values are highly significant at p<0.001. Although time spent playing in yogic instant, quick and deep relaxation times was smaller than the time control times of chess game but showed stronger correlations. This tendency is also reflected within various pawns of the chess game. Time control games as per standard times spent is more than 3 times or 40% more time than the yogic blitz time control of 6 minutes which has significant difference with classical standard time controls of ≤10 minutes. Results are discussed within the frame of social interaction and competition provided by the opposite player. Incorporating Yoga based time control chess games in standard regulations, schools and colleges may be useful in improving the chess quality with memory time controls and wellness of the students and also for the general public.

 

KEYWORDS: Chess game, Yoga, Time controls, Education.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Checkmate[1] (“the King is helpless”) concept is a strategic move in stopping the opposition pawn movement in the chess board is the basic principle in two player’s minds[21]. Schiller, E.[2], specially focused on the official rules of chess. Planning, strategies and control times are essential part of the game and this requires a freshening up mind i.e. Chess is not only physical but highly mental sport science. How to freshen up the mind during the time control is the objective of these studies.

 

Time control idea in the chess board was first used by Grandmaster David Bronstein[3], but how to utilize the break control time was not suggested by any of the existing masters including Grandmaster David Bronstein. In this paper we have devised a yogic method of utilizing the time control. A study[4] results show that irrelevant information affects chess masters only when it changes during the presentation of the target game.

 

There are three relaxation techniques[5], developed by Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research foundation viz; I. Instant relaxation technique, II. Quick relaxation technique, III. Deep relaxation technique. Yogic evidence suggests that meditation-based stress-management practices much useful in stress reduction through enhance memory[6]. One more study7 suggested that cyclic meditation is a yogic technique that combines “stimulating” and “calming” practices, much helpful to reach a state of mental equilibrium. These study[8,22] examined the possibility of enhancing emotional competence through self -management of excessive tension program. Another Study[9] shows that Shavasana could be an effective tool to combat stress. A study[10] describes the work on perception in chess, adding some new analyses of the data. One more important study[11] shown the evidence that chess skill is dependent on re-cognitional/perceptual processes has been based primarily on findings from recall tasks and from analyses of verbal protocols. In the selection of the students, a random survey[23,24,25] was conducted in the schools. The educational motivation[26-32] a specific study[12,4] was conducted on the role of domain-specific practice, in chess. Burns BD[13] in 2004, states that two types of mechanisms may underline chess skills: fast mechanisms, such as recognition, and slow mechanisms, such as search through the space of possible moves and responses. Speed distinguishes these mechanisms, examined archival data on blitz chess (≤10 min for the whole game), in which the opportunities for search are greatly reduced. Based on all the above review studies, the problem statement may be defined for the management of time control in chess game. Indian scriptures[5,14,15] do discuss about the problem of management of time control and offer solutions in the form of three Yogic Relaxation Techniques – Instant Relaxation, quick relaxation and deep relaxation techniques .

 

Problem statement:

How effectively one can manage time controls in chess board play through yogic methods?

 

Hypothesis:

It may be hypothesized that “one can be a winner in the chess game by effectively managing the time controls through Yogic methods”. Yoga is skill in action while the time control in the chess game is how much time a player gets to make their own moves.  Integration of these two is our stated hypothesis.

 

OBJECTIVES:

The hypothesis may be proved with the following different time control categories of chess play

·         Classical time (120 minutes) in chess with classical yogic time[16] (16 minutes).

·         Rapid chess time (Minimum 10 minutes, Maximum 60 minutes) with rapid yogic time (6- 10 minutes)[17].

·         Blitz (attack without warning) chess time (≤ 10 minutes) with blitz yogic time[17] (for King or Queen Pawns).

 

METHODOLOGY:

Sample:

The socioeconomic profile details of the students are illustrated in Table 1. The socioeconomic status shows that the majority of the parents belong to the average middle class society with an average monthly income ranging from Rs.20,000- 50,000//- per family. It may further be noted that about 35.17% of the students were residing in the hostel. The mean age of the students was 16.5±2.75years. Among these students 60.67% were females and 39.33% were males.

 

Table 1: Pattern of distribution of participants according to Socio-economic profile characteristics

Characteristics

No. of study subjects

(N=600)

Percentage (%)

Age

15 Years

117

19.5

16 Years

214

35.6

17 Years

227

37.8

18Years

42

7

Gender

 

 

Male

236

39.33

Female

364

60.67

Place of stay

 

 

Own house

302

50.33

Hostel

211

35.17

Rent

87

14.5

Socioeconomic status

 

 

Upper (I)

174

29

middle (II)

353

58.83

Lower (III)

73

12.17

 

The above socio economic profile helped us in selecting 600 subjects in our study. During the studies, we have taken consent of all the participants in practicing yogic techniques. Based on socio-economic profile, given in Table 1, the Pre and Post groups are divided equally. The post group involves yogic methods [5] such as:

 

I. Instant Relaxation Technique (IRT):

As shown in Fig.1, two phases are shown – phase 1, with a time limit of 20 seconds and phase 2 with a limit of 40 seconds. These are well within the time controls of chess game. And hence Yogic IRT techniques are practiced.  These two steps could be practiced at any given instant of time even at the incremental steps involved in playing chess game.

 

Fig. 1 Instant Relaxation Technique

II. Quick Relaxation Technique (QRT).:

Total time required for QRT is 3 minutes, Fig.2, but there are three phases involved in the process.  Phase 1 is observation of the abdominal muscles, phase 2 with breathing and phase 3 for 1 minute. These phases are well within time controls of the chess game.

 

Fig. 2. Quick Relaxation Technique

 

III. Deep Relaxation Technique (DRT).:

The entire technique of DRT, Fig.3, could be practiced well within time control measures of 6 minutes.  During this time, all  6 steps covers the entire  observation of physical (toes to waist),  physical, pranic (waist to neck), physical, pranic, mental , physical, pranic, mental and emotional, complete body from toe to head, step 5, physical, pranic, mental, intellectual, body parts and the last step covers the spiritual , tuning to the infinite nature of mind. 

 

Fig. 3. Deep Relaxation Technique

 

As seen from the above, all yogic relaxation techniques viz; IRT, QRT, and DRT are within the time limits of the chess game.

 

RESULTS:

The pre and post data of the selected chess participants are shown in Table 2. The results show the significant (2-tailed) values at p < 0.001. A paired ‘t’ test with and without yoga time control measures are made. Classic, Rapid and Blitz timings are given in Table 2 represents standard FIDE[17] (Federation International des Echecs or World Chess Federation) time control data. Time controls with yoga practices for different types (classical, rapid and blitz) of chess games have reduced when compared to FIDE[17] timings as shown in Fig. 5. This shows that by practice of IRT, DRT and QRT techniques5, the breath time controls gets reduced.

 


Table 2. Pre and post paired ‘t’ test yoga time controls in chess play

Chess Timing parameters

Paired Difference time in minutes

t value

df

Significance (2-tailed)

Mean

Std. Deviation

Classical time (pre)

109.45

6.316

51.120

299

.0001

Yogic Classical Time (post)

61.33

11.619

Rapid Time (pre)

53.48

3.157

57.990

299

.0001

Yogic Rapid Time (post)

29.10

6.634

Blitz Time (pre)

8.83

5.225

16.476

299

.0001

Yogic Blitz Time(post)

3.76

1.185

 


Fig. 5 A Compact study of Time Control in Chess Game vs Yoga


Table 3 gives the comparison of yogic time controls with FIDE standard time controls of 3 different chess games– classical, rapid and blitz. The values given in the brackets represent the FIDE values[17].

 

Table 3. Comparison of Yogic time controls with FIDE time controls

Table 2. Time Control in minutes

Classical Chess Game

Rapid Chess Game

Blitz Chess Game

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

109.45 (120)

61.33

53.48 (10-60)

29.10

8.83 (≤ 10)

3.75

 

DISCUSSION:

The World Chess Federation FIDE[17] states that classical time controls for major events - 90 minutes for the first 40 moves, followed by 30 minutes for the rest of the game; with an addition of 30 seconds per move starting from move one. The Candidates tournament and the World Championship are currently played at 100 minutes for 40 moves, followed by 50 minutes for 20 moves, followed by 15 minutes for the rest of the game, with a 30-second increment starting from move one. These FIDE[17] based genres – classical, rapid, blitz have different set of time controls as shown in Fig.6.  These FIDE time controls are compared with yogic time controls. The blue color represents standard while the red color indicates yogic timings. It may be seen that the different chess time controls converge at deep relaxation timings at 12.5[17] and 10.6 minutes with 15% timings difference.

 

 

Fig. 6 FIDE time controls vs Yogic time controls

 

Although time spent playing in yogic instant, quick and deep relaxation times was smaller than the time control of chess game but showed stronger correlations. This tendency is also reflected within various pawn movements of the chess games as per FIDE standard times spent more than 3 times or 40% more time[18] than the yogic blitz time control of 6 minutes which has significant difference with classical FIDE time controls of ≤10 minutes.The expert players play the game with lesser moves but play speedily. In the concept of speed chess[19], there is high correlation between speed chess and standard chess. Here in this paper, we have followed FIDE time controls. In yogic chess game, we found from our studies that IRT, QRT, and DRT time control is smaller but achieved successful results like Garry Kasparov[1], Viswanathan Anand[20] etc. we may argue that yogic techniques are very useful tools both for chess grand masters, armatures were they can practice the IRT, QRT, and DRT techniques[5] and become super chess game masters. This study results are discussed within the frame of social interaction and competition provided by the opposite player. Incorporating Yoga based time control chess games in FIDE regulations, schools and colleges may be useful in improving the chess quality with memory time controls and wellness of the students and also for the general public.  The findings may be related to the study[13] which states that two types of mechanisms may underlie chess skill: fast mechanisms, such as recognition, and slow mechanisms, such as search through the space of possible moves and responses. Speed distinguishes these mechanisms, He examined the archival data on blitz chess[2] (≤10 min for the whole game), in which the opportunities for search are greatly reduced. Our results also indicate the reduced time after practicing the three yogic relaxation techniques. Analyses of three Yogic Relaxation Techniques for the management of time control and blitz chess game supported our hypotheses is “one can be a winner in the chess game by effectively managing the time controls through Yogic methods”.

 

CONCLUSION:

The three stated objectives of the study on the basis of time control categories17 of chess play viz, Classical time (120 minutes) in chess with classical yogic time (16 minute), Rapid chess time (Minimum 10 minutes, Maximum 60 minutes) with rapid yogic time (6- 10 minutes), Blitz (attack without warning) chess time (≤ 10 minutes) with blitz yogic time (for King or Queen Pawns). Reported chess playing time per game variance values are calculated using the t-test. A highly significant variant values are found to be at p<0.0001with confidential interval of 95% shows that our stated hypothesis “one can be a winner in the chess game by effectively managing the time controls through Yogic methods” may be true and hence the null hypothesis may be rejected. This research study will benefit all the school and college going students in improving their mental skills like memory recall with yoga based educational values with be a winner of chess game. There is a vast scope for further research in carrying out the curriculum based yoga education in different types of educational institutions.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT:

I thank sincerely to all my colleagues, friends, relatives and students who participated in this research work and for their excellent cooperation in caring out this work successfully.

 

COMPETING INTERESTS:

Author and Co-Author declare that they have no conflict of interest.

 

AUTHOR CONTRIBUTION:

The main author is the administrative head and the remaining co-authors contributed the data analysis and its statistical interpretation.

 

FUNDING SOURCES:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

 

AUTHOR DISCLOSURE STATEMENT:

No competing financial interests exist.

 

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Received on 14.10.2018            Modified on 11.11.2018

Accepted on 20.12.2018            © A&V Publications All right reserved

Int. J. Rev. and Res. Social Sci. 2019; 7(2):293-297.

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2687.2019.00017.0